episthmes
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Written by ????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????, ???????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????   
Wednesday, 08 October 2008 18:14
Article Index
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Page 2
Page 3
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????? ??????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????. ?????? ?????, ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ??? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ???????, ????????????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????????. O ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??????????, ???? ???? ??? ??????????? ??? 430 ?.?. ???, ????? ?? ????????? ??? 428 ?.?., ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????. ????????? ???? ??? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????????. ???? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????, ? ???????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? 427 ?.?. ??? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? 426 ?.?. ???????????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????, ?????? ????? ?? ??? ? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????.

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???????????? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????, ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????, ????? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ??????. ? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????, ? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????.

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? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????????, ????????, ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????. ?? ???? ??????? ?? ???????????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??????. ????????, ?? ???? ???????, ?? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????.

??? ??? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????, ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????????. ? ?????????, ?? ????, ?? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????????, ? ????? ?????????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ?? ? ?????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????. ??? ?? ????, ??????? ?????? ??? ? ????? ???????, ??? ??????????, ??? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????, ???? ?? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??????????. ?????????, ? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????????? ???????. ?? ???????, ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???. ???? ??? ????????, ?? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ??????? ??? ? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ????????.

????????????, ??????, ? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????????. ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ??? ? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??????????, ?? ???????, ????????, ???? ? ???????, ? ????????, ????????????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ????.

?????, ? ????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ??????, ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ??????????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????. ??????, ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?? ????????????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????????. ????????????, ???? ?????:
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? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????? ???? ???????, ???? ??????? ? ?????? ???? ??????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????.

??????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?? ???????? ????, ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??????. ???? ????? ????? ??????, ? ??????? ???? ??????? ? ??? ?????????????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ????, ???? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??? ????? ????? ?????????????????.

????????, ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????. ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ???????. ????????, ?? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????. ?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ???????? ??? 1918, ????? ? ???????? ???????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ???????. ??? ????????, ?????????? ??? ????????? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??? 1919. ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? 3-4 ?????? ????, ????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? 1889-1992.

? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????????. ??? ???? ?? ??????, ? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????. ??????, ?????????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????????.

??????????? ?? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ??? ??????, ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?????????: ? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?? ?????? ????????????? ??????????.

? ????????? ?????, ??????, ??? ?????? ????????. ? ??????????, ?? ??? ????????, ???? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????????, ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????????. ???? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????????, ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? 1918 ? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ????????? ???????????. ?? ???????????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? 1918, ???? ? ????????? ???? ????????? ?????????, ???? ????? ??? ?????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ???? ?????, ??? ??? ??????. ?????????, ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????????? ? ??????????.

? ??????????? ???? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????. ????? ??? ?? 1918 ? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?? 3 ?? 5%. ???????????, ??????, ?? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????????????. ?????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????.

? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ?? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ????????????, ????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??? ? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ??? ?? ??? ????????. ????????, ??????, ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????????. ?? ???????? ? ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ?????????.

???? ? ??????? ????????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ???. ? ????????? ??? ????????? ????? ?? 1978 ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????, ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????????. ????????, ??? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???. ??????, ????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?? ????? ????????????? ??????????, ????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ????????????, ? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??????-1 ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ???. ???? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????????????.

????????, ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??????????? ? ???? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ?? ? ??? ????????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????, ?????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?? ??????? ? ????????? ???????????. ????????? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????, ??? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????????????..  ?? ???? ??? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????. ? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ????, ????, ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??? ????. ??????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ???? ??????. ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? ????????????, ???? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ???????????.

?? ????????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ???????, ???? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?? ?????????????? ???????. ??????? ??? ???, ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????????. ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????. ??????, ?? ????????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????. ?????????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????????, ??? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???? ?????????, ????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????????.


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????, ??????, ?????????? ??? ????????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????????. ??????, ???????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????, ? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ???? ? Langmuir, o Mercier, ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ??????, ??? ??? Kobert, ? ??????, ??????? ????? ??? ???????????? ????? ??? 1889-1892, ??? ??????? ??? ????? ? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??????????. ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????.

? ?????????? ????, ??????, ????? ??????????, ????? ? ?????????? ???? ???? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????????????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?????????, ??????????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???????. ? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ????????: ???? ? ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??? 5?? ?.?. ??. ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?? ????, ???? ????? ??? ??????????, ? ???? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????. ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? 2.500 ?????? ????????.

??? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????? ?????????????, ??????, ??????????????, ???????? ??? ??????? ????????. ?? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????. ?? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??? ? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? 100.000 ? ????? ??? 200.000 ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??????, ????? ??? ? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? (20.000-25.000 ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????) ?? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? 2-5 ?????????? ???.

?????????, ?????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??????. ?? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ????????. ??? ????????, ?? ???????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ???, ??????????? ??? ? ????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ?????. ? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ????????????, ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ?????. ?????, ????, ??? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??????????? ??????????????, ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????????. ??????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??? ? ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????????????? ??? ??? ??? ??????. ???? ????? ??????, ?????????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ???????????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????. ??????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ??? ??????????-??????? ??? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ???????????, ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????.

?? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ????????????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????????. ? ????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????????. ??????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ???????????, ???? ? ?????? ??? ?????????, ? ???????????? ??? ? ???????????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???????, ????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ??? ???? ? ????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????????, ????? ??? ?? ????????, ??? ????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????????.

??????, ?????????? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ????? ???? ???????? ???? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ??????. ?? ??????????, ??????, ????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???????????: ?? ???????, ????? ???????? ? ???????, ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????. ???????????, ?? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????, ???? ?????? ?????????????? ???? ?? ?????. ?????, ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ???????? ????????.

?????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ????????. ? ???????? ??? 1782 ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ?????, ?????????? ???????? ??? 6 ????????? ?? ???? ????. ?????????, ? ???????? ??? 1889-1890 ?????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? 2 ?????????, ??? ??? 16? ?????????? 1889 ????? ??? ???????????. ??? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? 261.981 ???????? ???? ?? ??????? 45 ??????.

? ???????? ?????? ??? 1918 ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????, ? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????. ???? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? , ? ??? ?????????? ??? Newark ??? New Jersey ?? 12-15 ?????????. ??????????? ??? ? ???? ???? ???????? ??????? 435.000 ?????????, ???? ??? ? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? 430 ?.?., ?? ??? ???????? ????????????????. ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? 1918 ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????. ?? ?????? ???? 3 ?????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????, ??????????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ????, ???? ?? ???????? ????? ?????????.

? ???????? ???? ????????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??????. ????????, ???? ?? 1826, ???? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ? ???????? (??????) ????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????.

?????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????, ??????, ?????????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????. ?? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ?? ???????????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????????, ???? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ?? 99% ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ? ????????? ??????. ?? ??? ? ????????? ?????????????, ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ???? ??? 5? ?.?. ??. ???? ?????, ? ?????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?????????? ? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????.

??????????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????????, ???? ???? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????:
  • ? ?????? ????????? ??????, ? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ???? ???
  • ???????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???? ??? ??????
  • ??????????, ????????, ??? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ???
  • ?????, ?? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????????, ?? ???????? ??????? ?????, ? ????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????????? ? ??? ?????????????.

?? ??????????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????. ???? ?? ???????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? 2 ????, ??? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ??????????? ??? ????, ?? ????????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????, ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? 75% ??? ??????? ????????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?????????.

??????????????, ?? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???? ? ?????, ????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ???? ???????, ? ???????? ? ? ???????.



 

2008-2013 Perceptum magazine
ISSN: 1792-2933


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