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Written by ??????? ?????????   
Wednesday, 11 November 2009 18:02
money_health?? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ??????????, ?? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ?? ?????? ?? ? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????????.

????????????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????????, ??? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ??????, ???? ????????????? ???????, ???? ?? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ?????????? ??? ???? ?? ????????, ?? ????????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ???????????, ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????.


?? ??????? ??? ???????????

? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????, ??? ??? ????? ??????????????? ? ???? ??????? ???????????????? ????? ??? 2008 (??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ??? 1929), ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????, ??? ?? ????????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????????, ???? ? ????????????, ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?????????????????????1.

Wall-Street-Crash-Posters
?????? 1. ?? ???? ??? 1929 ???? ???? ??? ??????
krach1
?????? 2. ??????? ??? ???? ??? 1929

? ??????? ???????? ???????? (International Labour Organization ILO) ????????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??? 2009 ????  ????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ??????, ????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ??? 200 ????????????, ??? ????? ???? ??? ???????2. ????????, ???????????? ??? ???? ??? 2009 ???????????? ??? 50 ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????3.

?? ???? ??? ????????, ??????, ??? ???????? ????????, ?? ???? ??? ? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ???????, ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? 1929. ??????????, ?? 2002 (??? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? 2008), ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????, ??????, ????? ???? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ????????? ???? ????????? ????? ????????? ??? 7,6%4.


? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????: ?? ???????


?????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ?????. ?????????? ??????? ????? ????? ??? Marie Jahoda (?????? ?????? ?? ?? ??????????? ???????) ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? Peter Warr. ?? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????, ???? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ???????????.

???????? ?????????, ???? ?? Sigmund Freud ??? Erik Eriksson, ????? ???????? ??? ????? ????, ???? ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????, ???? ???? ????????? ???????? ???????????. ????????? ????? ?????????? (???? ? Harvey Brenner), ???? ????????? ?? ????????????, ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???? ???? ? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????.

?? ??????????? ??????? (? ?????? ??? Marie Jahoda): ? ??????? ????????? ?????????, Marie Jahoda, ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????. ????????? ??? ????? ??? ? ???????: (?) ????????? ??? ?????????????? ???? ?????, (?) ??????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ??????, (?) ????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????, (?) ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????????, (?) ????????? ?????. ????????, ? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ????? ??????????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????????5. ??? ??? Jahoda, ??? ????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ? ??????? ??? ????????, ? ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????6. ? ?????? ??? Jahoda, ??????, ???????? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ????????????? ???????, ??? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?? ?????, ???? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????.

?? ??????? ????????? (? ?????? ??? Peter Warr): ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??? Peter Warr, ? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?? ????????????? ?????????. ? Warr ???????? ??? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????, ???? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? : ? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????, ???? ??? ? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????. ?? ???????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??????? ? Warr ???? ?? ???? ?????: ????????? ??? ??????, ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????, ?????????? ??????, ????????, ???????? ??????????, ????????????? ????????, ???????? ????????? ??????, ????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????, ????????? ????. ?? ??????? ??? Warr ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ???????. ? ?????? ???, ??????, ???????? ????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????????? ????????7.

? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????: ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????. ??????? ?? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????? Sigmund Freud, ???? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????? ???, ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ????????????. ??? ??????????, ??? ?????????, ?????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???, ??? ? ?????? ??? ?????????, ?.?., ??? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ???8. ? ??????????? Erik Erikson, ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????, ??????????? ??? ? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ????????, ? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??????9.

Sigmund_Freud_LIFE
?????? 3. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Erik_Erikson
?????? 4. Erik Erikson (1902-1994)


??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????

????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??????????, ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????.

? ?????? 49 ???????? ??????? (?? ???? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????, ????? ???? ???, ?? ?????????? ????? ??? ???? ?????????) ???????? ??????????? ????????????, ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????10.

? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ???, ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????, ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ????????????11, ??? ?? ?????????????12, ??? ?? ???????13,14 ??? ?? ???????????? ???????15. ????????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????12,16,17.

????????????, ????? ???????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????18,19, ????????? ??????????? (??? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????????, ??? ???????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ???? Banfalvy ??? Segest ??? ??? ????? ?????? ????????) ??? ???????? ??? ?????? (???? ??????20, ??????????21 ??? ??????? ????????22,10).

?????, ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ???. ??? ??????????, ???? ?????? ??????? ???? 20% ???????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????14, ??? ???? ????????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?? 20-30% ???????? ????????? ?? ?,?? ?????? ??? ????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ?????11.


? ?????? ??? H. BRENNER

?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? Harvey Brenner, ???????? ??? ???????????? ??? North Texas Health Science Center, ??? ????? ?????????? ????????, ? ?????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????????, ??? ???????? 40 ????, ?? ???? ?? ?????? ????????, ??? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????????. ???????, ??????, ?? ?? ?????? ??? Brenner23 (??? ???? ??? ????????? ??? 1970), ???? ?????? ???? 10% ??? ??????? ??? ??????? (?????? ??????? 900.000 ???????? ???????) ?????? ???? ???????? ????????, ??:

?????????? ??????
???????? ???????
1.2% ????? ???????????
24.000 ???????
1.7% ????????????? ?????????
17.000 ???????
1.3% ?????????? ????????
400 ???????
1.7% ????????? ???????????
200 ???????
4.2% ????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????
6.000 ????????
4% ????????? 400.000 ????????????


? ???????? ?????

??? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ?? Stanislav Kasl ??? Beth Jones ??? ?? ???????????? ??? Yale. ?????????? ?? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ???, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????, ????????? ??? ? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ?? ????? ?????. ?? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??? ? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????????. ???????????, ???????, ?? ???? ???????: ? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????;24. ????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ???? ?? ?? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????. ????????, ??????? ?? ???? Kasl ??? Jones, ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????????. ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ????????????, ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????24.

? ???????? ??????????? D. Schwefel, ? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ?????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???, ????? ? ?????, ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????. ? Schwefel ????????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????????, ????: ?) ? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? (????????????? ????????), ?) ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????, ?) ???? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ? ????????, ?) ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ?????????. ????????, ? Schwefel ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????????, ???? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????25.

?????, ? Lutz Hollederer ??? ?? ????????, ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????, ???? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?????, ?? ??? ?????? ???, ?? ? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???, ???? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ????????26.


????????????. ? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????

? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????????? ???????, ???? ???????? ??????????, ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????. ?? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ???????. ?? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????, ???? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ????????.

??????, ????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????????, ??????? ?????????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? 2008 ?? ???? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????. ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????????? (???? ??? Brenner23 ??? ???? ??? Kasl ??? Jones24), ???? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? (?????????? ?? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????:

1) ???????????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? Brenner: ????????? ??? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??? 2009 (?? ?? ???????? ??? ILO, ???? ?????????) ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? 200 ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ???? 3%, ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ???? 4.2% ???? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???? 10.5% ?? ????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ????????.

?????? 5. ? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????

2) ?? ???? ??? ???????? ?????, ??? Kasl ??? Jones, ? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ????? ??? ???????????.

????????, ??? ???? ?????? ?????, ???????? ??? ? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ??????. ??????, ?? ???????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? 1929, ?? ???????????? ???????????, ??? ????? ? D. Schwefel, ???????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? 1930. ??? ???????? ??? 30, ???? ?? ????, ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ???? ??? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ???? 21? ????? ? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????.



????????????


1. WSJ, The Times, The Guardian ???, ? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????, 9/10/2008.

2. Financial crisis to cost 20 mn jobs: UN expressindia.com, Oct 21, 2008.

3. Global unemployment heads towards 50 million: The Times, January 29, 2009.

4. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. ????????? ???? ???????? www.bls.gov.

5. Jahoda, M., Employment and unemployment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1982.

6. Ezzy, D., Unemployment and mental health: a critical review. Soc.Sci.Med., 1993, vol.37(1), 41-52.

7. Warr, P., Work, unemployment and mental health. Oxford University Press: New York, 1987.

8. Smith R., Bitterness, shame, emptiness, waste: an introduction to unemployment and health. British Medical Journal, 1985, vol.291, 1024-1027.

9. Goldsmith A.H., Veum J.R. & Darity W.Jr, The impact of labour force history on self-esteem and its component parts, anxiety, alienation and depression, Journal of Economic Psychology 17, 1996, 183-220.

10. Kousoulis Antonis, Does unemployment affect health?, academic research, Athens 2006.

11. Australia National Health Survey, 1989-1990.

12. Lee, A.J., Crombie, I.K., Smith, W.C. AND Tunstall-Pedoe, H.D., Alcohol consumption and unemployment among men: the Scottish Heart Health Study. 1990, Br.J.Addict., 85, 1165-1170.

13. Rodgers, B., Socio-economic status, employment and neurosis, 1991, Soc.Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol., 26, 104-114.

14. Dooley, D., Fielding, J., and Levi, L., Health and unemployment, 1996, Ann.Rev. Public Health, 17, 449-465.

15. Clemmer and Mohr (1991); Greenough and Fraser (1991).

16. Grayson, J.P., Health, physical activity level, and employment status in Canada, 1993, Int. J. Health Serv., 23, 743-761.

17. ??????????? ?????: Power and Estaugh, 1990; Lee et al, 1991; Bertley, 1994; Hammarstrom, 1994.

18. Bowman, P.J., The adolescent-to-adult Transition: discouragement among jobless black youth, 1990, New Dir Child Dev., 46, 87-105.

19. Berg, J.E., Unemployment and ill-health: What is the relationship between occupational ability and employees resources/, 1991, Nord.Med., 106, 305-307.

20. Hermalin et al. (1990), Unemployed groups of heroine.

21. Hamid, 1991.

22. ??????????? ?????: Segest et al., 1990; Solstad et al., 1990.

23. Brenner M.H., Mortality and the economy: A review and the experience of England and Wales, 1936-1976, 1979, Lancet ii:568-573.

24. Kasl S. & Jones B.A., The impact of job loss and retirement on health, 1998, In Social Epidemiology, Berkman L.F. & Kawachi I. eds. Oxford University Press.

25. Schwefel D., Unemployment, health and health services in German-speaking countries, 1986, Social Science and Medicine, vol.22 (4), 409-430.

26. Hollederer, The Health Status of the Unemployed in German Unemployment Statistics, 2003, IAB, Labour Market Research, 54.